Asw genius 110

Not commonly known but the F-47 Thunderbolt had a last hurrah with the French fighting in Algeria in the asw genius 110.

The French COIN success in Algeria, 1954-1962

The funny ending of the story below is tainted with the disgusting smug American triumphalism that since we were so rich and mobilized we could just throw away P-47s and replace them.

This is also connected to the shiny-bare-metal- we-don't-need-camouflage crap also seen at the end asw genius 110 WW2. We ain't living in WW2 anymore so the authors are in the wrong for ending the story at that point to go along with the current fascist America worship bandwagon to make the readers feel good because we DON'T make fighters by the thousands each month, we're lucky to get a few DOZEN in a year's time. If we were making fighters in the thousands, go ahead and gloat, you earned it.

This generation HAS NOT.

Since we cannot replace our fighters we darn well better disperse, camouflage (in the air and on the ground) and harden them so they don't get caught on the ground in the face of an enemy "Bodenplatte" type attack.

And of course, we need a P-47/IL-2/Stuka equivalent for MAS ASAP.

The Air War Nobody Told You About
P-47 Thunderbolts on the Continent of Europe, 1944-45

Combat Aircraft, March 2004
by Robert F.

Dorr and Thomas D. Jones

The P-47 Thunderbolt evoked fierce loyalty from pilots who flew it, but today one group of P-47 veterans is bitter. Thunderbolt veterans who fought on the European continent in the final year of World War II feel that their contribution has been forgotten. "People don't know we were there," said retired Col. James L. "Mac" McWhorter. "Air-to-ground action wasn't glamorous, and it attracted very little attention."

Today, asw genius 110 often appears clean and efficient when viewed on television screens.

But P-47 pilots know that combat can be dirty, gritty, and ugly. Consider, for example, the citation awarded to pilots of the 406th Fighter Group, for destroying a column of German vehicles asw genius 110 to escape advancing Allied forces near Chateauroux, France:

"Thirty-six P-47's of the 406th Fighter Group took off on September 7, 1944 at 15:05 hours and raced south of the Loire River to find the road from Chateauroux to Issoudon clogged with military transport, horse drawn vehicles, horse drawn artillery, armored vehicles and personnel.

Attacking this enemy concentration, at minimum altitude, in spite of accurate ground fire, the.pilots.made pass after pass until their bombs, rockets, and ammunition were expended. The road was blocked for 15 miles with personnel casualties, wrecked and burning military transport.

More than 300 enemy military vehicles were destroyed in this attack alone."

The citation continues: "The group returned to home base, and after being refueled and rearmed in a minimum length of time, returned to the scene of the action. Before the enemy asw genius 110 reorganize and extract the remnants of his column, a further 187 vehicles, including 25 ammunition carriers, were attacked and destroyed.

In spite of intermittent rain and the hazard of landing at night on a slick tar paper runway." asw genius 110

Left out of asw genius 110 citation is the fact that Thunderbolts frequently strafed horse-drawn supply columns, leaving behind tangled, bloody carcasses. Thunderbolt pilot Tom Glenn says, "The horses were not our enemy, but our assignment was to prevent those columns from harming our troops." The gruesome sight sometimes made pilots physically ill---not what they expected when they signed up for pilot training starry-eyed about the beauty of flight.

"No one would call this slipping the surly bonds," says Glenn, in a reference to the lofty words of the poem "High Flight."

Those who sat in P-51 Mustang cockpits at high altitude on escort missions to Berlin were able to savor a little of the joy of flying.

But for Ninth Air Force fighter pilots, the job meant living in infantry-like conditions at snow-covered, mud airstrips on the Asw genius 110 and flying low-level strafing and bombing runs---"not clean, not comfortable, and certainly not glamorous," says Glenn, "but necessary."

Low-Level Hell

To a man, the dozen P-47 pilots interviewed for this article agree that they might not be alive today had they been flying the P-51 instead of the rugged, eminently survivable Thunderbolt.

As Americans learned later in Korea, asw genius 110 under-fuselage cooling system of the P-51 made the Mustang vulnerable to gunfire at low altitude, even small-arms fire from infantry rifles. The Mustang was a feisty filly at higher elevation, but the Thunderbolt offered the best chance to stay alive down low where the metal was flying around.

MYSTERY: Where were all the 15, 683 x F-47s when the 1950 Korean war unfolded?

Surely their fuel hoggish nature would have been offset by their ruggedness to enemy fire.want to see a movie on F-51 vulnerability during ground attack in the Korean War, watch the Rock Hudson movie, "Battle Hymn".

Perhaps USAF asw genius 110 fighter pilot narcissism so to it that the thousands of F-47s were scrapped or given away quickly in favor of the sexier F-51s.that with liquid-cooled engines were extremely vulnerable to ground fire later on in the Korean war.

Not for nothing, the Farmingdale, N. Y. manufacturer of the Thunderbolt was called the "Republic Iron Works" and had a reputation for building fighters that were big, roomy, and survivable.

One P-47 returned to its Asw genius 110 base with body parts from a German soldier embedded in its engine cowling. Another landed safely riddled with 138 holes from bullets and shrapnel.

P-47s rolled out of American factories in greater numbers than any other U. S. fighter, ever.

There were 15,683 x P-47s, a figure that compares to 15,486 x P-51s, 13,143 P-40 Warhawks, and 10,037 Asw genius 110 Lightnings. But while the ubiquity of the Thunderbolt is undeniable, P-47 pilots are accustomed to being slighted.

In an appalling gaffe, the U.S. National Air and Space Museum did not have a P-47 on permanent display until the omission was rectified in late 2003 at the museum's new Udvar-Hazy Center at Dulles Airport, Washington, D.C. The Museum has long been the owner of a pristine, Evansville-built P-47D-30-RA (44-32691) but for many years had it asw genius 110 out to the Museum of Aviation at Warner Robins, Ga.

For men caught up in a down-and-dirty conflict on the European continent, it was indeed fortunate that the Thunderbolt existed at all---especially since the aircraft emerged from a conversation aboard a railroad car traveling between Dayton, Ohio, and New York in 1940.

Republic Aviation's chief designer Alexander "Sasha" Kartveli, Army Capt. Marshall "Mish" Roth, and Republic's C.

Hart Miller were coming back from a Wright Field conference, where they had learned that Republic's two fighters then being proposed to the Army, the P-44 Rocket and the XP-47 lightweight fighter, failed to give Army Air Corps the performance it wanted.

The trio discussed ways to exploit the best of what they had already -- the 2,000-hp. Pratt & Whitney R-2800 Double Wasp 18-cylinder, twin-row air-cooled engine they had selected for the XP-47, a superb cockpit design, and the proven airfoil and wing of the P-43 Lancer and the proposed P-44.

They talked of building on these positive features to create a more robust fighter. Kartveli jotted notes on the back of an envelope, giving rise to the myth that the Thunderbolt was designed this way.

The first XP-47B---a wholly different aircraft from the never-built XP-44 and XP-47---took to the air on May 6, 1941, with Republic's Lowery Brabham at the controls. Built around its massive engine and the extensive ducting system for its turbosupercharger, the new fighter dwarfed its asw genius 110.

Early in its career, pilots dubbed the aircraft the "Jug" because of its portly shape. Asw genius 110 to accounts published much later, the nickname had nothing to do with the P-47 being a juggernaut, although it assuredly was one.

By the time the Allies landed in Europe, the "razorback" configuration of early Thunderbolts (and the automobile-style door of the prototype) was giving way to the bubble canopy found on late P-47D models.

The typical P-47D flown on the Continent by Ninth Air Force pilots had a 2,535- R-2800-59W radial, a 17,500-pound takeoff weight, and eight .50-caliber (12.7-mm) Browning M3 [heavy] machineguns packing 250 rounds each.

Formidable Fighter

Thunderbolt force on the continent. For these men, air-to-air combat---normally the way asw genius 110 fighter pilot attained glory---was secondary.

As 2nd Lt. Leslie Boze of the 365th Fighter Squadron described asw genius 110, "We felt our efforts would help to win the war."

By D-Day, June 6, 1944, Thunderbolts were pouring from factories faster than pilots could fly them away.

They were soon arriving in the combat zone in natural metal finish, devoid of the olive-drab camouflage scheme in which the Thunderbolt began its operational service. They were decorated with caricatures and names---the term "nose art" had not yet been invented---that reflected the personalities of their pilots. McWhorter's P-47 was named "Haulin' Ass." Boze's was "Blonde Trouble."

Bob Hagan of the 365th Fighter Group, the "Hell Hawks," remembers that the air-to-ground war seemed "very personal," as when he engaged in a one-on-one contest with a German gunner while strafing troops in a forest.

Hagan remembers the gunner tracking him through each pass in the contest of survival, he did his best to outwit his adversary by jinking, then returning to make another strafing run.

The war at low altitude could be very personal but on that occasion Hagan doesn't know whether he got the gunner after two or three passes. Looking down through trees, snow, and mush, he couldn't tell.

"I felt comfortable handling the Jug," Hagan said. "It was big and heavy [with a gross weight of 19,400 lb. in the P-47D-25 model], but it never felt that way." Hagan recalled that the P-47 created less engine torque than the P-40 Warhawk flown asw genius 110 training, that the Thunderbolt took off smoothly, and that acceleration forces rarely exceeded the 3 or 4 Gs encountered for a few seconds when coming off a target.

Hagan said the pilot did not feel the bombs coming off during a high-speed dive. He said Thunderbolt pilots typically closed to about 200 yards before opening fire on a ground target.

"You could see smoke trailing from other Thunderbolts when they asw genius 110 firing. You sensed a vibration when the guns were being fired, but no big shaking." Thunderbolt pilots believed their eight guns gave them enormous firepower.

Gun camera film supported that view.

Hell Hawk

While the emphasis was on air-to-ground fighting, Hagan and his fellow P-47 pilots faced German fighters as well.

On October 21, 1944, the 365th FG asw genius 110 Hawks" took off from Chievres, France on a sweep over the German frontier. The top cover unit, the 386th Fighter Bomber Squadron, spotted bogies at 22,000 feet---a flight of 30 Focke-Wulf Fw-190s. Diving out of the sun at the enemy formation, the Thunderbolts forced the -190's to break earthward, straight into the sights of the group's other two squadrons.

In the huge, swirling air battle that followed, the Hell Asw genius 110 knocked down twenty-one of the enemy fighters.

Hagan was flying wing on the 386th's commanding officer when they slashed through the German flight. After a few minutes in the melee, Hagan's engine began smoking and his Thunderbolt lost power. He didn't think he'd been hit. Apparently, he had asw genius 110 into his leader's spent .50-caliber shell casings.

Hagan dropped out of the action and turned toward Allied lines.

With his heavy Thunderbolt in a stable but steep glide, he knew the chances were slim that he'd make it to an emergency field. Hagan unbuckled his harness and squatted on the seat in preparation for bail-out.

The young lieutenant hesitated: he was almost certain to be captured if he abandoned the plane so far east. Deciding to take his chances with his ship, he sat back down, strapped in, and willed the P-47 towards the front line and safety.

With a sudden jolt, the Thunderbolt's engine finally seized. Beyond the motionless prop, Hagan asw genius 110 see hilly terrain with small woodlots below. Too low to bail out and with no sizable pastures at hand, his only option was a forced landing. Heading into a small clearing, he realized his final glide would carry him right into a clump of trees at the far end.

He banked as much as he dared in an attempt to swing wide of asw genius 110 timber looming ahead.

It was too much to ask of the heavy Jug. The Thunderbolt's right wing stalled and dipped toward the earth rushing by. Catching a wingtip, the big fighter cartwheeled across the pasture, in the process shedding the radial engine, both wings, and the tail section. As the P-47 tore itself apart, Hagan tumbled with the wreckage, protected by the sturdy cockpit structure.

As the wreckage slid to a stop on the Belgian turf, the impact slammed his head against the instrument panel cracked several ribs. He was clear-headed enough to crawl from the crumpled cockpit, Hagan headed for a GI and a Jeep he'd spotted on a road asw genius 110 the pasture.

After making a successful, if painful, dash across the clearing, an exasperating Asw genius 110 asked the GI why he hadn't driven over to pick him up in the Jeep. "Because you landed in a minefield," the GI deadpanned.

The injured pilot's luck continued to hold. After going only two hundred yards, he was rushed by GIs who hustled him back through their lines to an aid station.

He had crash-landed just 400 yards from the front, near Athus, Belgium. In asw genius 110 weeks, Hagan was back flying combat in a new P-47. A few months asw genius 110, hit by flak after strafing a Luftwaffe airfield at Leipzig, Germany, Hagan bellied in near the Ruhr Pocket and again evaded capture.

(Hagan went on to a lifetime of many other aviation achievements, including making the first flight of the Cessna T-37 Tweet trainer, aircraft 54-716, on October 12, 1954).

Air Action

While the Thunderbolt's primary fight on the Continent was an air-to-ground war, there was aerial action as well.

1st Lt. Leslie Boze of the 365th Fighter Squadron was element lead in his Thunderbolt on a typical ground attack mission over Germany when he was drawn into an aerial battle.

A Lt. Jones asw genius 110 name unknown) was leading the flight, followed by 1st Lt. Tom Asw genius 110. A pilot named Gallagher flew on Boze's wing in the second element.

Spotting a Wehrmacht truck convoy, Jones led the flight down in a tight asw genius 110 for a strafing attack.

Jones, in the lead, opened asw genius 110 with his eight .50-caliber [heavy] machine guns as Easterling curved in behind him.

Flak began to rise from the German convoy to meet the onrushing attack. In just a few seconds the four P-47's were caught in a vicious crossfire, and Easterling caught the worst of it. His plane staggered under the impact as Gallagher shouted over the radio, "Tom!

The son-of-a-bitch is on fire! Get the hell out of it!" Easterling barely managed to bail out of the burning fighter. He opened his parachute just seconds before hitting the ground.

Severely injured, Easterling struggled through pain and imprisonment until liberated from a POW camp at war's end. asw genius 110 Boze and Gallagher had barely digested the sight of Easterling's plane asw genius 110 hit when they caught sight of a pair of Bf-109s, boring in on their element. Boze pulled off the convoy and headed straight for the nearest -109. The Messerschmitt, a head-on silhouette, opened up with its 20mm cannon; Boze had to wait until his fifties came into effective range.

The -109's cannon rounds came streaking by his canopy like a string of glowing white golf balls. Now Boze had the enemy in range, and he touched the trigger.

The eight .50's reached out to the Messerschmitt and staggered it. Boze asw genius 110 see his armor-piercing incendiary rounds hitting home, sparkling over the wings and cowling of the onrushing fighter. The German pilot still came on, nose-to-nose, in a deadly game of chicken. Still scoring strikes on the -109, Boze held the trigger down as the two fighters came together.

In the last split-second, the German pulled up and whipped over the top of Boze's Thunderbolt, a near-miss so close that he heard the roar of the -109's Daimler-Benz engine.

Looking back over his shoulder as he turned slightly, Boze caught sight of the enemy, smoking and slipping toward the wooded terrain below. The German slammed into the ground in an oily fireball. There was no parachute.

Winter War

Today, it is convenient to think of the war as a straight-line march of victories that led to Germany's defeat.

It is also easy to think of the air war without considering what asw genius 110 happening on the ground.

Both approaches are asw genius 110 simple. The story of P-47 Thunderbolt pilots on the Continent asw genius 110 parallel to the saga of combat Soldiers on the ground. In fact, pilot one pilot referred to the Thunderbolt as "a foxhole in the sky." The landings at Normandy, the slugfest in the Falais Gap, the Battle of the Bulge, and the final victory in Europe saw ground Soldiers and P-47 pilots fighting together.

Perhaps the best examples came in one of the largest battles ever fought (perhaps with the sole exception of Kursk, on the other front). A furious attack by German armies on December 16, 1944, surprised Allied troops in the Ardennes, a forested plateau in northern France that been the scene of earlier fighting in both world wars.

The Asw genius 110 opened the assault along a 50-mile front, initially with twenty-one infantry and armor divisions. They called it the Ardennes offensive; Americans called it the Battle of the Bulge.

Two weeks later, on January 1, 1945, the Luftwaffe launched Operation Bodenplatte (Baseplate), an air-to-ground effort against Allied airpower on the continent.

Possibly 800 Luftwaffe aircraft struck about two dozen Allied airfields, including asw genius 110 where P-47s were based. By far the worst damage was inflicted at Y34 Metz-Frescaty airfield, where the 365th "Hell Hawks" suffered 22 x P-47s destroyed and 11 damaged. But in the course of destroying a total of 122 Allied aircraft on the ground, the Germans lost 200---and while only a handful of Allied personnel lost their asw genius 110, dozens of irreplaceable German pilots perished.

For a brief, shining moment, the Luftwaffe apparently believed the New Year's Day air attack had been a giant success. Anyone could have been forgiven for concluding as much after seeing the twisted, blackened, smoldering wreckage of Thunderbolts at Metz. The story of a captured German pilot illustrates how the conclusion was the wrong one.

Cocky Captive

The German was arrogant. Never mind that his Bf-109 had been shot out beneath him.

He had begun the new year by parachuting into the American airfield at Metz, now lit up by the fires of burning P-47 Thunderbolts---a sprinkling of bright torches amid the gray January gloom and the dirty white snow.

Initially at least, the air attack seemed a stunning setback to American pilots, maintainers, and support troops. In the months since D-Day, most had gotten accustomed to crude living conditions, lousy weather, and a war in which Thunderbolts harried the German army at low level where a lot of asw genius 110 was flying around. They were not, however, used to being attacked.

Asw genius 110. Army anti-aircraft gunners managed to shoot down eight of the sixteen Messerschmitt Bf- 109s that came over that day, and the German pilot was now an American prisoner as a result. Yet he obviously believed that his side had inflicted a major blow.

Standing inside 365

FYI, the F-47's last hurrah appears to have been combat missions over Guatemala during the CIA's 1954 coup there for AmeroNazi Illuminati business interests.

Fixed-wing "Killer Bees" better than armed Helicopters: DoD/USMC screws-up Light Armed Reconnaissance Aircraft (LARA) and gives us the need-an-airfield OV-10 Bronco

The first reality is the USMC should have stayed in the Army's Asw genius 110 Mohawk program instead of leaving for snobby reasons in 1958.

Had they done this, they would have already had a STOL COIN observation/attack aircraft when the Vietnam war started like the Army had.

Boeing Model 147 = Tilt-Wing Mohawk

Furthermore, the tax payers would have saved money while both services would have been farther along towards creating a TILT-WING VTOL version of both their Mohawks and we'd not be in the mess we are today where NEITHER service asw genius 110 an observation/attack plane!

.and the flying deathtrap V-22 tilt-rotor was asw genius 110 dozens of lives and wasted $ BILLIONS of dollars all for nothing gained.

Actual OV-10 with floats to be seaplane fighter

Proposed Charger float-equipped seaplane fighter

Another aspect that has been overlooked is that had the LARA winner been properly equipped with short span or folding wings, they could have been fitted asw genius 110 floats and taken to sea on small surface ships to regain the seaplane fighters capability we lost when the SC-1/2 SeaHawks were wrongly retired in 1949 because they threatened the large aircraft carrier "mafia" of the U.S.

Navy. The Goodyear Model 39 LARA candidate was a seaplane fighter!

LARA candidates

2012: Many Thanks to BlacktailFA for finding new and very rare LARA artwork!

Grumman Model 340 Mohawk

The first candidate offered to the LARA competition was indeed a tandem-seat Model 340 Mohawk.

This would be too much egg-on-the-face of the egotistical marines, so it was eliminated from the competition.

Hiller K16 LARA proposal

Click on Pics for Full-Sized Versions

Beech LARA proposal asw genius 110 src="">

Lockheed CL-760 proposal

Martin LARA proposal

General Dynamics-Convair Charger Model 48 LARA COIN aircraft proposal with civilian variants

1964 = Twin-boom COIN fighter.
2-place Cabin mid-wing monoplane retractable landing gear
2 x 650hp P&W-Canada T74 (PT6) turboprops
span: 27 feet 6 inches wide
length: 34 feet 10 inches long
load: 6003# v: 319
range (ferry): 3000
ceiling: 21,300 feet
first flew: 11/25/64 (pilot: John W.

9 foot contra-rotating props.

Produced in only 35 weeks from design, but lost out to North American OV-10, and it was the last complete aircraft to be built with the Convair nameplate. POP: 1 [N28K], destroyed in 1965 after its USN pilot successfully ejected at 100'.

Douglas Model 588

Goodyear Model 39: Seaplane Fighter that could land on water!

You can even build a 1:72 scale resin model of the GA-39!

Helio's Entry

North American N300 (OV-10) LARA proposal with civilian variants

What about the Land-Anywhere LARA?

Why did it become the bloated OV-10 Bronco? What happened to it?

The Bronco's creator, legendary retired USMC Colonel K.P. Asw genius 110 has recently posted a web site offering source documents on the Bronco fiasco that asw genius 110 with his L2 VMA concept which became the DoD LARA program that begat the OV-10 Bronco. Asw genius 110 Convair Model 48 Charger met Rice's LARA concept of a short-wing COIN aircraft that didn't need airbases; the lazy and pampered fly boys and control freak DoD bureaucracy would have none of this!

K.P. Rice
Volante Aircraft Company
2020 S. Susan Street
Santa Ana, CA 92704
(714) 545-0125

Email: [email protected]

Rice wanted a fixed-wing observation/attack plane that could be CO-LOCATED with ground maneuver headquarters without need of an airfield via simplicity, small wingspan, and GROUND MOBILITY.

Land and take-off asw genius 110 Bush pilots in Alaska.

Rice states:

"The military definition of STOL (500' to a 50' obstacle) allows takeoff and landing in moist of the areas in which limited war might be fought.

In addition, the airplane was designed to use roads so that operation would even be possible in jungle areas where clearings are few and far between. As a result the wingspan was limited to twenty feet and a heavy trailing arm type landing gear with a tread of 6.5ft was provided for operation from roads.

Float operation is feasible."

".it is quite feasible to design the various components so that it can be disassembled easily and stored in a box that would fit in a 6x6 truck bed together with the equipment needed for re-assembly in the field. It could thus be transported by amphibious shipping and either heli-lifted or driven ashore by a 6x6 asw genius 110 The OV-10 is a good example of where fuzzy requirements result in BS.

The jarheads wanted a plane with narrower wings so it could STOL land like an Army grasshopper and the bureaucrats penciled this need out. Even folding wings could have asw genius 110 enable co-location. It looks like the USMC flyboys perverted the OV-10 design and made it yet another aircraft we have to work around when the original intent was it to sublimate itself into ground and sea transportation as needed.

There are some bad infantry ideas inherent in the OV-10 like the 4 x 7.62mm medium machine guns which force the Bronco in too close to ground enemies when the fact is "infantry" units do indeed have at least .50 caliber (12.7mm) heavy machine guns mounted on ground vehicles so this longer ranged ammunition is available, but this is easily fixed as K.P.

noted by retrofitting bigger guns like 20mm cannon which finally were used on the OV-10D.

disappear" from the www.

Rice concludes:

"The original concept of a small, simple aircraft that could operate close to the supported troops had been almost completely eviscerated by the 'system.' The ability to operate from roads (20ft span and 6.5 tread) had been ignored, and performance compromised by the short 30ft span, the extra 1000lbs for the rough field landing gear and another 1000lbs of electronics.

The 'light, simple' airplane also had a full complement of instruments, ejection seats asw genius 110 seven asw genius 110 store stations. The concept of using ground ordnance and a bomb bay had been ignored, although it did have provisions for four M-60 asw genius 110 machine guns. In spite of this growth (almost double the size and weight of our home-built), the YOV-10 still had great potential. It would not achieve the advantages of integration with the ground scheme of maneuver, but it did have capabilities at the low end of the performance envelope that were still valuable and unique."





Sixteen years ago the aircraft industry hit the "con trails." The atom was smashed, the sound barrier broken.

The era of boom and zoom was launched in the middle of the mushroom clouds. The man in the Buck Rogers suit became the new hero of the new age. Thermonuclear annihilation "push-button" style was as real a possibility as the miracle of the dial selector washing machine.

But when the dark rain of fallout fell on an awestruck world, both sides of the international political question had grim second asw genius 110 about resolving their differences by leaving a vacant spot in the solar system. The possibility of such a war remains with us. It must assuredly be prepared for!

Meanwhile, back in the foxholes of Korea, the jungles of Indo-China and the sands of Israel and Jordan, war proceeds pretty much as usual. Not the blast asw genius 110 the atom bomb, but the burst of machine gun fire breaks the silence of this "twilight peace" we asw genius 110 enjoying.

The rifleman is no anachronism. He is very much with us and in active service. Read the daily newspaper.

The aviation complex, industrial and military, in its rightful pride and zeal, in being the instrument of the future and the vanguard for conquering space, has neglected the exigencies of current warfare and providing the requisite airborne support for same.


Limited war is a current reality.

The USMC is an ideal weapon in such a war. The following study is a consideration of the modern concept of limited war in terms of current aviation capabilities and weaknesses, both tactical and logistical, with special attention to the need for a new type of aircraft designed specifically to eliminate these weaknesses.

Better air support than that which can be obtained with current high performance type aircraft is needed, especially for limited war situations.

After studying the problem and asw genius 110 in general the additional capabilities that are needed for adequate air support, various means of achieving these capabilities were examined. The most promising approach appeared to be a concept in which very light S.T.O.L.

(short take off and landing) aircraft are used to supplement existing asw genius 110 performance types. Performance characteristics can be obtained with light aircraft which permit greatly increased effectiveness through tactical innovations.

Further advantages can be obtained by developing applicable weapons and tactics simultaneously with the vehicle needed to implement them.

Aircraft design and tactics are interdependent and both must conform to expected requirements and environmental considerations. The explanation of a light support concept and description of the aircraft characteristics necessary to implement it are therefore complicated by a certain amount of background material.

The nature of war in which the marine corps might become involved in the next few years will be considered first.

This will provide the background necessary to define current inadequacies in terms of probable combat environment. The advantages of meeting the resulting requirements through the use of a light attack vehicle will be compared with the possibility of replacing current aircraft with more complex and versatile types.

Finally, specifications for a feasible light STOL support vehicle will be developed. Using the predicted performance of a sample vehicle, tactics for its employment will be described so that its effectiveness and viability can be evaluated.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS 1. General. The maintenance of a strong deterrent is a prerequisite to national existence and cannot be neglected. On the other hand, the ability to react rapidly and effectively in a limited or cold war situation is the greatest immediate military problem facing the United States today. It has become obvious that limited or cold war operations are much more likely than an all out war. The marine corps, as a "force in readiness," and by the virtue of its composition and amphibious capability, is particularly concerned with the limited war problem.

While it is impossible to predict how and under what conditions a limited war would be fought, certain aspects of environment asw genius 110 could become critical in future operations can asw genius 110 foreseen.

2. Political Sanctuaries. One of the most significant limited asw genius 110 factors from an aviation standpoint is that political sanctuaries are not only a possibility, but a probability. Without political sanctuaries somewhere, the war could not be limited.

In a limited war between two major powers, sanctuary areas are almost certain to exist because any threat to an opponent's strategic striking force will invite a thermonuclear holocaust. Attack on less vital sanctuaries will almost certainly enlarge the area of asw genius 110. In the Korean War, the Chinese Communists operated from a sanctuary behind the Yalu River and United Nations forces at sea or in Japan were not attacked. Many people were angered and dismayed at this development during the Korean Asw genius 110.

In the asw genius 110 we must be ready with equipment and tactics to operate in this environment more effectively than the enemy.

3. Air Superiority. The concept that air superiority is the prerequisite to victory and that it is achieved by bombing enemy airfields is inconsistent with a policy of limited war.

Counter-air operations or the bombing of enemy airfields can no longer be accomplished except in the immediate combat area. The range of modern aircraft is such that few, if any, probable areas of operation are not within the range asw genius 110 likely sanctuaries. Since there is no way to eliminate the threat of attack from sanctuaries, we will have to be prepared to conduct military operations in spite of the threat of enemy air attack.

4. Air Defense. Another factor that must be considered is the difficulty of providing an adequate air defense for large fixed installations like airfields and logistics centers. If ballistic missiles with nuclear warheads are used, however, defense is an almost hopeless problem, if the enemy is really asw genius 110 about asw genius 110 destruction of certain targets. Almost all anti-aircraft weapons, fighters, missiles and artillery depend on radar for warning, target acquisition asw genius 110 guidance.

Radar is the bottleneck in air defense. It can not only be asw genius 110 directly with air or missiles, it can be evaded or its capabilities saturated. In the most likely limited asw genius 110 areas such as the Middle East or Indo-China, overland approaches at low altitudes offer an obvious way of avoiding most air defenses.

Since large, fixed targets would at least be subject to attack and possibly might not be able to exist in a combat area, passive, rather than active, defense measures will become more important. Even the use of VTO aircraft or SATS with arresting gear and catapult would not provide effective passive defense for high performance aircraft, asw genius 110.

The base facilities necessary for supply, fuel, maintenance, instrument approaches, etc. would make a remunerative target, even if the asw genius 110 could be eliminated altogether. As a result, both friendly and enemy aircraft may be forced to operate from sanctuaries outside the area of operation.

With any large, fixed installation subject to attack, ground forces will require more air support to replace heavy weapons that are limited by logistics. The limited amount of naval gunfire support available and helicopter transportability will also be factors.

5. Major Environmental Considerations. A situation in which both sides are forced to operate aircraft from sanctuaries and all large targets in the objective area are destroyed is an extreme example and may never materialize.

The following implications of this situation may apply wholly or only partially. However, they could be critical and must be treated as major environmental considerations:

a. Ground and air operations may have to be conducted in the face of enemy aerial opposition.

b. High-performance aircraft may be forced to operate from sanctuaries outside the area of operations.

asw genius 110 c. Large, fixed targets may be asw genius 110 vulnerable to exist in a combat area, forcing ground forces to use dispersion and limiting logistics.


Moredirect air support will be required by ground forces than has been required in the past.


General. With these conclusions in mind, let's examine the requirements for air support more asw genius 110. First, while preparing for a limited war, we must still be ready for an "all out" nuclear conflict.

The same aircraft that provide an adequate nuclear delivery capability for an "all out" war can also provide an adequate capability against large, fixed targets in a limited war. This capability is good whether nuclear or conventional weapons are carried.

The development of the SATS concept provides the ability to deploy powerful aviation units to almost any area of the world. Even if operations may not be possible from fields in the actual combat area, the range of modern tactical aircraft permits their use over that area. When support requirements of ground forces are examined, however, we find important inadequacies.

asw genius 110

2. Target Acquisition. Current high performance aircraft are limited first of all by their target acquisition capability. It is impossible to spot many small fleeting targets from a high speed jet.

Mosquito [T-6] aircraft were necessary to spot targets even from prop type aircraft in Korea. A fleeting target spotted by the pilot of a jet, in many instances is lost before he can get into asw genius 110 for a run.

3. Armed Reconnaissance. A definite armed reconnaissance capability asw genius 110 needed. Not only must fleeting targets be dealt with, but intelligence asw genius 110 required.

There is no means at present to fill the gap between reconnaissance that can be provided by helicopters and that provide by high-performance aircraft and drones. Neither is adequate for providing timely information on enemy armor, mechanized or helicopter-borne movements. Not only must the ground commander be warned of enemy movements of this nature, but an immediate attack should also be made.

4. Asw genius 110 and Mechanized Forces. Dealing with helicopters and mechanized forces is a special problem. None of the current high performance aircraft have a reasonable capability against either.

Even with missiles like Bullpup and Sidewinder available, it is difficult to see how properly equipped aircraft can be provided in time to find the targets or effectively employ the missiles, if asw genius 110 do. Dispersion and the use of cover asw genius 110 concealment will make the targets hard asw genius 110 find and the limitations of missiles at low altitude and close range will make the targets hard to hit.

Support asw genius 110 helicopter and mechanized operations is similarly limited due to the fundamental disparity in normal performance and operating environment.

5. Discrimination or the ability to apply the proper amount of force on a few large targets or many small targets is especially required in limited or guerilla warfare where political and economic considerations are important. Inaccurate or excessive force can so damage a cause politically that the military gains are cancelled.

The safety of troops being supported also comes under this asw genius 110. High performance aircraft can carry larger loads, but do not have the accuracy or flexibility required for adequate discrimination where small targets are concerned. The recent addition of multiple racks on the A4D [SkyHawk] is a progressive step, but the fact that area bombing techniques are being developed for their use is an indication of the pinpoint accuracy that can be expected.

An A4D with multiple 250 lb. bombs is not the ideal weapon to use against a guerilla on a camel. Likewise its use in close proximity to our own troops is not calculated to raise morale. The strafing capability that provided a high degree of discrimination in the past, has been greatly weakened by the type of guns and ammunition carried by most high performance aircraft as well as by their performance characteristics.

6. Integration with Ground Forces Scheme of Maneuver. For effective limited war operations the air support effort should be as closely integrated with the ground scheme of maneuver as is the artillery which it will have to replace to an ever greater degree.

This can be achieved only by utilizing aircraft that are readily available, properly armed and whose asw genius 110 are at least familiar with the ground situation. The difficulties here are obvious. The number of aircraft available, their discrimination and target acquisition capabilities, asw genius 110 and communications all present serious problems. Even navigation to the target area might become a serious problem in some instances, if NAVAIDS like TACAN are not located nearby.

Enemy aircraft and missile tactics as well as economic and logistic factors oppose the use of support planes circling on station waiting for targets.

7. Requirements. The probable environment of future wars asw genius 110 such that mobility, flexibility, passive defense and logistics will be of paramount importance. Ground forces will require more air support that they have in the past. In order to provide the requisite support future operations will require:


A much better target acquisition capability.

b. A good armed reconnaissance capability.

c. A discriminating close support capability.

d. A better mechanized and helicopter attack support capability.

e. A method of integrating air support with ground scheme maneuver.



General suitable and Effectiveness. It is the inability to deal adequately with small, fleeting targets that accounts for most of the inadequacies in air support. The development of highly sophisticated electronic equipment for new attack aircraft like the A2F is one approach to the problem. When equipment like side-looking and terrain clearance radar is perfected and used in conjunction with some of the newer guided weapons, it will provide a really formidable all-weather capability.

Developments along this line are desirable because of the great improvement in total effectiveness they will permit especially in bad weather and at night. The price will be high, however, in maintenance and logistic support as well as in initial cost.

Moreover, it doesn't solve the basic problem. Relatively large numbers of aircraft are required to find and destroy numerous small targets.

Even if the effectiveness of these new developments is granted, it seems fairly obvious there would seldom be enough of these specialized aircraft to meet all requirements.

Integration with the ground scheme of maneuver would be especially difficult, if the supported units were small and separated and the aircraft were based in a sanctuary some distance away. Discrimination and survivability are also problems. In short, the use of asw genius 110 type aircraft with sophisticated electronic equipment asw genius 110 provide a valuable capability, but will not meet all requirements for dealing with multiple small fleeting targets.


A road in Muong Asw genius 110, Laos, 7 miles from Communist border from which light support aircraft could operate.

1. General. The development of new aircraft and associated weapons systems has been characterized by a mechanical approach to combat. Speed is the answer to defense and survivability problems; range is the answer to the vulnerability of the base; black boxes are being added for target acquisition.

While this approach has produced many advances, it has limitations. The previously noted inadequacies can be attributed largely to an emphasis on performance as a substitute for tactics. Analysis of the close air support problem indicates that here, at least, is one issue that asw genius 110 be better solved by making the weapon implement the tactics, than forcing the asw genius 110 to support the weapon.

2. Concept-of-Operations. The light STOL support concept involves a new type of tactical aircraft distinct from the fighter, attack and observation types presently in use.

asw genius 110

It is intended to supplement asw genius 110 performance types presently in use by exploiting military possibilities in the lower end of the performance spectrum.

Light support aircraft would operate at low altitudes with relatively light loads. Effectiveness would be achieved by getting close to the target for extreme accuracy. The ability to conduct dispersed operations from roads or unprepared terrain in the vicinity of supported elements would minimize problems of security and defense against air attack.

Evasive tactics, heavy armor and low radiation return, rather than speed would be used for defense in the air.

Logistics requirements would be kept to asw genius 110 minimum by simplicity of design and asw genius 110 the use of infantry type ordnance and supporting equipment as far as possible.

3. Capabilities. This type aircraft could provide the ground commander with limited, but effective, air support. The commander would be able to asw genius 110 or support armored or helicopter operations.

He would also have an effective means of observation and target acquisition. In addition he would have an accurate discriminatory weapon to use against the many important targets that are too small to justify the use of more expensive weapons.

The armed reconnaissance capability would be especially valuable in limited or guerilla type operations.


Feasibility. The key to this concept obviously is the airplane and its capabilities. Can an aircraft be built within the current state of the art which has the requisite performance?

If it can be built, how will it be asw genius 110 Who will operate it and what asw genius 110 will be necessary to provide for accomplishment of its mission with reasonable survivability?

To answer the first question it was necessary to design an actual airplane making the many compromises that are a part of every design. The performance of the resulting aircraft can be used to evaluate its theoretical combat effectiveness.

SPECIFICATIONS AND DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 1. Operate asw genius 110 Supported Troops. The first design requirement considered was that the airplane be able to operate with the supported troops without the necessity of any fixed base installation.

This would permit integration with the ground scheme of maneuver and provide the minimum passive defense against counter air operations in the combat area. Operations from within a regimental or battalion perimeter would also minimize the security problems that beset forward tactical airfields, especially where guerilla action on infiltration tactics are considered.

The military definition of STOL (500' to a 50' obstacle) allows takeoff and landing in moist of the areas in which limited war might be fought. In addition, the airplane was designed to use roads so that operation would even be possible in jungle areas where clearings are few and far between. As a result the wingspan was limited to twenty feet and a heavy trailing arm type landing gear with a tread of 6.5ft was provided for operation from roads.

Float operation is feasible.

L2 Size Contrast with the AD [SkyRaider]

2. Minimum Logistics. Operations with the supported troops also demand that logistics be kept to a minimum. Therefore, the airplane is small having a gross weight of 5300lbs for STOL operation.

Two turboprop engines of 500hp each using 7 1/2' props and the principle of deflected slipstream can provide the necessary takeoff performance. Fuel consumption would not be excessive - about 50 gal/hr and the engines can be burned, i.e., MO-gas, kerosene, JP-5.

Simple design and asw genius 110 particularly the elimination asw genius 110 "black boxes" should make maintenance easy. Very little support equipment should be needed since there is asw genius 110 component that cannot be lifted by hand. Provision for the asw genius 110 of infantry ordnance further simplifies the logistics problems. A small bomb bay and external racks can be used for carrying bazookas, recoilless rifles or 4.2 mortar shells, if they can be modified efficiently for aircraft use.

The primary weapon would be multiple M-73 machine guns. This asw genius 110 maximum asw genius 110.

If logistics are critical and STOL operations necessary, infantry type ordnance would be carried and all necessary support provided by 6x6 truck or helicopter.

Asw genius 110 the other hand, if an air base or carrier were available, better than 2,000lbs of aviation type ordnance could be carried. asw genius 110 3.


a. General. It is not considered necessary or desirable to carry an extremely heavy ordnance load. Accuracy, proper tactics and weapons matched to targets will provide effective firepower as distinguished from blind, destructive force.

Provision is made for a capability against relatively soft, fleeting targets like troops and unarmored vehicles; for hard point targets like tanks; and for larger targets like bridges and bunkers. The aircraft will be able to carry sufficient ordnance to execute an interdiction type strike effectively asw genius 110 still provide a good armed reconnaissance capability on the same sortie.

b. Guns. The most effective all around weapon will be the four 7.6mm machine asw genius 110 (or similar type weapons) which are effective against troops, unarmored vehicles and helicopters.

Strafing is not limited by safe separation requirements and targets can be hit with precision without risking damage to nearby personnel or property. There would be no particular problem in mounting 20mm guns, if necessary.

However, unless developments like the German anti-tank 20mm prove effective, the heavier guns would probably not be desirable.

c. Hard Point Targets. The problem with hard, point targets like tanks is to get close enough for a direct hit without getting caught by blast effect. The easiest weapon to use would be the 106mm recoilless rifle because of its accuracy, effectiveness and minimum blast problem.

However, these weapons are quite heavy, provide only one shot and haven't as yet been used from aircraft. Aircraft rockets like Zuni or the 2.75 while not as accurate are considerably lighter. The bazookas or the newer LAW could be fired at a close asw genius 110 range to score hits and still avoid excessive blast effects. Another possibility is dive-bombing with small bombs. The Germans had some success with this approach in World War II on the Russian Front.

Guided missiles like Bullpup or some of the smaller types could be carried, if necessary.

d. Miscellaneous Targets. For bunkers, roads and rail cuts and bridges, low-level attack with delay fuse bombs seems to be the best approach. Napalm, a number of small bombs asw genius 110 possibly mortar shells or asw genius 110 equivalent could also be carried, if the situation so warranted.

e. Sample Loads. While further evaluation of specific weapons is required, the aircraft will be able to carry a sufficient quantity of aviation or modified infantry type ordnance to provide an extremely flexible capability.

Asw genius 110 following loads would be feasible and give an indication of the possibilities of the aircraft:

(1) In a dispersed situation, operating with the infantry, where logistics are critical and aviation type ordnance is not available.

(a) Four machine guns for troops, unarmored vehicles and helicopters.

(b) Packages of Bazookas or LAW rackets for use against tanks and hard, point targets. If these aren't practical, two-106mm Recoilless Rifles could possibly be carried.

(c) Up to twelve-4.2" mortar shells or the equivalent in the bomb bay for area type targets. The bomb bay could be used alternately to carry up to 500lbs of supplies for air drop.

(2) From a short forward airfield with aviation ordnance:

(a) Four machine guns for troops, vehicles and helicopters.

(b) A asw genius 110 of five inch or 2.75" rocket asw genius 110 or guided missiles for tanks asw genius 110 hard, point targets.

asw genius 110 A 500 lb. GP or napalm bomb.

(d) An observer asw genius 110 a camera in the bomb bay.

4. Protection Against Small Arms is provided by approximately 400 lbs. of armor around the cockpit. Since there are two engines which are very small targets, they will either be lightly armored or not armored at all. The fuel will be carried in tip tanks that can be jettisoned, if set on fire. A small 10-15 gallon sump tank will provide protected fuel for return and landing.


Maneuverability is required for the violent jinking which experience has shown to be very effective evasive action. The 30-35 lbs. wing loading, 10-G load asw genius 110, low stall speed and a asw genius 110 per minute rate of climb should permit impressive maneuverability. The top speed is approximately 260 kts. indicated. It is estimated that an average combat speed in the vicinity asw genius 110 175 kts.

ca be maintained even with continuous violent maneuvering.

6. Low Radiation Return will asw genius 110 a desirable defensive characteristic, if more sophisticated weapons systems are encountered.

Low radar return will be achieved by maximum use of fiber glass structures and anti-radar "paint." Infrared output will be small to begin with and the addition of exhaust shielding should effectively neutralize the threat of IR missiles like Sidewinder and Redeye.

SPECIFICATIONS AND DESIGN REQUIREMENTS CONTINUED 7. Armed Reconnaissance. Since an armed reconnaissance capability is required and it is visualized that many of the tasks performed by fixed-wing VMO types could also be performed, provision is made for two seats.

The seat for the observer is located in the bomb bay and can be removed when not in use. Visibility is of prime importance asw genius 110 an aircraft of this type. Therefore, a configuration with both seats in front of the wing was decided upon. The wing is set approximately even asw genius 110 the pilot's shoulders providing 360 degree visibility above the wing.

Un-obstructed visibility forward and back under the wing for a considerable distance gives the pilot the best possible combination. Asw genius 110 observer is limited by the pilot in front of him and the wing behind him, but he should be able to see almost straight ahead by looking around the pilot's head and will be able to back under the wing about 30 degrees.

Side by side seating was rejected because it would limit visibility for the pilot in the attack role. Increased frontal area would also cause more drag and present a better target.

8. Safety. Because of its small size and moderate speed this airplane can be made quite strong. It is designed to withstand a load factor of 10-G so that the pilot needn't worry about exceeding the limits. The combination of low stall speed asw genius 110 robust construction should make it relatively safe in the event of a crash landing or ditching.

However, the reliability of the two engines makes forced landings an unlikely eventuality. Ejection seats are not considered necessary since bail-out over the side could be accomplished. On an aborted takeoff, a forced landing would probably be safer than ejection because of the low speed. This airplane should be safe and easy to fly, thus enabling asw genius 110 pilot to concentrate on tactical training rather than long check-outs and involved instrument procedures.

While instrument flying will be provided, it is considered that this type of aircraft should be flown VFR exclusively in combat. Operations are possible with a ceiling of 200 feet with one-half mile visibility and dive bombing can be conducted with a 2,000ft ceiling. While operations will not be possible 100% of the time, they will be possible a higher percentage of the time than in current attack types and, moreover, without the necessity of any landing aids like CGA.

9. Transport to the Area asw genius 110 Operations. For transport to the area of operations there are a series of choices. With ferry fuel tanks a range of over 2,000 miles can be obtained at a cruising speed of about 240 kts.

at approximately 25,000 ft. If a carrier deck were available, of course, the airplane could fly off with ease and it should be noted that storage space required would be small. While the first experimental aircraft will not have this feature, it is quite feasible to design the various components so that it can be disassembled easily and stored in a box that would fit in a 6x6 truck bed together with the equipment needed for re-assembly in the field.

It could thus be transported by amphibious shipping and either heli-lifted or driven ashore by a 6x6 truck.

10. Deep Rescue. The airplane has what appears to be a very good capability for deep rescue in enemy territory. The STOL characteristics would permit landing near a asw genius 110 pilot who could enter the plane rapidly through the bomb bay doors.

The armor, low radiation return and relative high cruising speed compared to a helicopter would make it asw genius 110 at long ranges in spite of the fact that the helicopter's ability to hover would over-balance these factors at short ranges.

11. Communications is always a problem in combat. In this case it appears that the provision of a standard UHF a/c radio would permit control through ANGLICO facilities and communication with asw genius 110 performance aircraft.

The UHF facilities could be used for overriding central control by a TACC for rescue or emergency. It would also be used to control high performance a/c on targets where their heavier ordnance was necessary, adding an airborne controller to the ANGLICO capability. L.F. radio of some sort is also required in order that intelligence and gunfire spotting missions can be accomplished.

This should not pose a difficult problem. In most cases organic infantry communications equipment could be used and, in addition, there is space in the back bomb bay for it.

TACTICS AND EMPLOYMENT 1. Organization. Now that the airplane has been described, general principals affecting tactics and employment will be covered in order that its effectiveness and survivability can be evaluated.

An organization will have to be developed which is flexible enough to provide administration, maintenance and training in garrison and to permit either centralized or local control in combat. If the tactical situation permitted, a small asw genius 110 with central logistics support would allow maximum efficiency and flexibility in accordance with the concept of centralized control. In a dispersed situation, where logistics, communications and passive defense were controlling factors, a small headquarters based at the nearest available sanctuary field could provide major asw genius 110 and replacements for units operating with a regiment or battalion.

For operations in the field, aircraft would probably be used in pairs. This would permit a choice of single plane operation with a back-up or section operation. It would also allow more efficient use of the limited support equipment required.

2. Tactics. Tactics would, of course, depend on the enemy situation and whether centralized or local control were used.

The performance characteristics of this light attack type are such that everything from single plane missions using low altitude evasive tactics, to coordinated strikes utilizing the principles of flak suppression, saturation and diversion could be used. Speed is the only "tactic" that is not available. On the other hand, the tight turning radius and low combat speed of the light attack plane will permit dive bombing as steep as 70 degrees with a release altitude below 1,000ft.

In addition, strafing and low-level runs can be pressed to a very close range. An extremely high degree of accuracy can be achieved in this manner since accuracy is a function of range.

Maneuverability and moderate speed in combat will also be extremely valuable in rough terrain and against hard targets such asw genius 110 tunnels or bunkers.

(a) Helicopter Operations will require considerable attention in the future and the light attack type is ideally suited to this problem. Performance characteristics are such that helicopter operations can either be supported or opposed with facility. The light attack is fast enough to catch helicopters or provide asw genius 110 for them, but is not too fast to operate in the same general area.

It also has the firepower and maneuverability necessary for rapid decisive action and attack.

(b) Defense Against Fighters and Guided Missiles will be accomplished primarily by evading the radar that these weapons depend upon so heavily.

Asw genius 110 shielding will asw genius 110 additional protection. In the event that enemy fighters do make contact the addition of a pair of Sidewinders would leave the enemy with little advantage except initiative.

SUMMARY 1. General. The tactics and aircraft design which resulted from this study embody many innovations and further development and testing will be required to perfect detailed aircraft specifications and tactical doctrine. The use of light aircraft does show considerable promise, however, and the major aspects of asw genius 110 concept can be evaluated by an application of the checks of suitability, feasibility and acceptability.


Suitability. Light aircraft are the only means of providing asw genius 110 good target acquisition, armed reconnaissance and discrimination capability.

The capability of dealing with helicopter and mechanized forces and to provide adequate integrated air support has not been physically demonstrated. Suitability in these areas may be questioned on the basis of firepower or ordnance load. It would seem, however, that loads comparable in tonnage to those carried by WWII fighter-bombers would be adequate, especially, if the ordnance and tactics were matched to the target.

The ability to serve as an airborne controller for high-performance aircraft and to make numerous relatively short-range sorties should compensate for lack of tonnage on any one sortie. While further tests are required to determine optimum weapons, the required tasks can be accomplished by light aircraft asw genius 110 the concept generally meets the test of suitability.

3. Asw genius 110. A light aircraft with the general characteristics required is definitely feasible.

Some innovations such as the ability to operate from roads or use infantry ordnance are not proved, but these affect the concept only asw genius 110 a limited degree. An engineering feasibility study involving all major aspects of design has been completed and checked by prominent aeronautical asw genius 110 engineers.

4. Acceptability. Is it worth what it costs in dollars, lives and logistics?

Dollar cost is negligible compared with other aircraft and since no tactical type aircraft would be replaced by implementation of this concept, no existing military asw genius 110 will be lost.

Vulnerability is a question which can be resolved completely only in combat and must be considered in relation to mission and the tactical situation. The relative immunity of this type aircraft to attack on its base is a great advantage and passive defense measures and tactics enable it to evade much of the opposition. It seems to be a fairly safe assumption that close support operations at least can be conducted without the prohibitive losses and that vulnerability will be considerably less than that of helicopters.

This type plane will not be absolutely safe, invulnerable or invincible, but then neither is the rifleman who needs its support. Logistically, light aircraft offer overall advantages, especially where rapid reaction to limited war situations are required.

The only time that logistic acceptability is a consideration is in a dispersed situation where the aircraft are operated asw genius 110 the infantry. The commander concerned will have to decide whether the airplane will be more effective per unit of logistic support that other weapons such as artillery.

The small amount of extra fuel required by light aircraft should be offset in most cases by greater ease in transportation to the combat area and greater flexibility. At least the commander asw genius 110 be provided the opportunity to choose.

5. Conclusion. The weakness of current aviation capabilities in terms of limited war must be faced and eliminated.

As far as can be determined without actual operational testing, the use of light aircraft is suitable, feasible and acceptable.

This light support concept must asw genius 110 considered in relation to the possibility of achieving needed capabilities that are not available now and may not be available through any other means.

Deja Army Wimp-out All Over Again? The Death--and Re-Birth of the Combat-proven Grasshopper concept

However, the realization that aeroscouting can be done better by small, two-seat fixed-wing aircraft than small helicopters is not a new revelation:

The excellent Vietnam grunt web pages, points this out when describing the O-1F "Bird Dog":

"Early Army combat experience in Vietnam pointed out quite forcefully the need for a fixed-wing Forward Air Control (FAC) aircraft to replace the OH-13 Sioux and OH-23 Raven helicopters initially used in that role.

The two aging helicopters were quickly found to be totally unsuited for observation work in the 'hot and high' conditions routinely encountered in Southeast Asia, and both asw genius 110 Army and USAF therefore fell back on the much more capable O-1.

The Bird Dog's performance was excellent in comparison to that of the Sioux and the Raven, and the Cessna also had a far better maintenance record and considerably lower operating costs."

Yet when push came-to-shove, the Army wimped asw genius 110 to the wishes of the assholes in the USAF who don't want to do CAS, and asw genius 110 the Army flew over 300 Bird Dogs at a time over Vietnam the USAF ended up reluctantly asw genius 110 O-1 Bird Dogs in Vietnam, and later on OV-10 Broncos and O-2 SkyMasters.

When the war/need passed, the USAF got rid of the fixed-wing observation/attack planes as soon as they could. The Army whined about a lack of power/speed as if their slower helicopters asw genius 110 this and gave up on their Bird Dogs. Egomaniacs in the USMC asw genius 110 not far behind retiring their OV-10s in 1993.

Today, the Army pattern of cowardice continues by trying to put together a BS unmanned attack helicopter called the UCAR.

The current FCS concept using a micro-UAV helicopter

The U.S. Army right now is trying to launch a micro-helicopter from the Future Combat System (FCS) network of wheeled armored cars to provide overhead surveillance and possibly an attack capability akin to Speed Racer's mechanical asw genius 110.

However, the A160 Hummingbird helicopter UAV while an advanced technology design is nowhere near large enough to carry a significant ordnance payload to attack/destroy targets and would be at best a nuisance. The "soda straw" narrowness of view of UAVs asw genius 110 general works against the A160 Unmanned Combat Armed Asw genius 110 or "UCAR" being effective at CAS.

CAS is often a "cat and mouse" game where it takes the active involvement of a man in the aircraft to exploit the opportunity of the enemy revealing his presence or our ground troops directing him to strike at a fleeting target.

We need a man in asw genius 110 cockpit to have this kind of agility.

While I agree with Carlton Asw genius 110 armed manned micro-helicopter Air Cavalry concept I conjecture that a light fixed-wing manned attack aircraft that can take-off from extremely short dirt runways may be even better for a number of reasons.

Consider a prop or even jet-driven fixed-wing UCAV like the PredatorUAV armed with Hellfire ATGMs except it would have as an option the ability to have the on-scene observation and guile of a human pilot, an "Unmanned/Manned Asw genius 110 Air Vehicle" (U/MCAV).

The dirty secret of why helicopters are not in every American's garage along with the family ground car is that after a certain amount of hours EVERY HELICOPTER'S Asw genius 110, TRANSMISSIONS AND ROTOR SYSTEM HAS TO BE TAKEN APART AND PUT BACK TOGETHER OR ELSE ONE DAY YOU WILL BE FLYING AND IT WILL FALL APART AND KILL YOU.

The helicopter must have organized depot level maintenance and even small size cannot prevent this. Robinson Helicopter masks this by building into purchase agreements that after the set number of hours, your R-22 will be turned back to them and rebuilt. For helicopters to fly they have to be constantly rebuilt. This is the dirty secret of the helicopter. Only 30% of a third world country's helicopters are in flying condition at any given time!

While the U.S. Army has deep pockets there are not bottomless.

If on the other hand, we used an automobile piston engine to propel a fixed-wing attack U/MCAV we could fly them for years at a time with operator PMCS without having to constantly rebuild them, saving millions of dollars.

We would gain twice the forward air speed (150-200 mph) possible high-altitude flight profiles but would lose hovering and V/TOL. But Asw genius 110 dare say that extreme SHORT take-off and landing (ESTOL) from a dirt strip (500 feet or less) that could be cleared out by a M113A3 Gavin with a dozer blade is "good enough" for Army Air Cavalry operations because the fuel and armaments will need to come by wheeled trucks and this means some kind of roads, and roads can = airstrips for ESTOL aircraft.

Another way to view this is that the U/MCAV would be a smaller, lighter version of what the OV-1 "Mohawk" CAS/recon aircraft was, flying out of O-1 "Bird Dog" artillery spotter plane short fields.

Another way of looking at this is if the USAF O-2 and OV-10 Forward Air Controllers (FACs) had modern lightweight armaments--they could be attack aircraft in themselves in addition to directing fires from others. Since the retirement of FAC aircraft in the U.S. military, U.S. ground forces have not had good CAS as they once had, and the UAV has failed to live up to expectations and be as good as---let alone better---than human eyes with binoculars and sensors looking for targets actively and directly from aircraft.

If done right, U/MCAVs could carry multiple rocket pods to create asw genius 110 modern ARA capability that we have not had since Vietnam. Laser-guided 2.75 inch rockets will give us precision kill capability of exactly what Army troops are laser-target designating, far safer for troops in close contact with the enemy than GPS/INS JDAMS without terminal guidance at a fraction of the cost of expensive Hellfire missiles.

The 1992 B-movie, "Iron Eagle III", while not a great movie, has some great ideas in it--at the end of the film, they show ground troops laser marking enemy asw genius 110 for prop-driven attack aircraft to fire laser-guided rockets and hit these targets even though friendly civilians were nearby!

Pretty amazing for a film in 1992 realizing CAS requires slower flying aircraft and to anticipate laser-guided rockets!

In recent Afghanistan combat, U.S. Army ground troops pinned down by enemy fire by their downed helicopter had to wait over an hour for a CAS mission aircraft on strip alert at asw genius 110 faraway fixed-air base, and once it got there, its pilots asw genius 110 untrained in using their guns for strafing runs on the enemy that could be controlled by ground troops to avoid fratricide.

Furthermore, fixed airbases with hard runways are easily targeted by enemy asymmetric forces asw genius 110 several recent RAND studies have documented. U/MCAVs can solve this vulnerability to enemy attack by placing CAS aircraft and pilots, support asw genius 110 in the midst of Army ground maneuver units that are automatically self-defensively strong while shortening the response times to ground unit requests for air firepower to ZERO because U/MCAVs would be continuously overhead.

Phil West of England has an excellent asw genius 110 page describing U/MCAV options where countermeasures to enemy Air Defense Artillery weapons are fitted to affordable STOL CAS aircraft:

The Buzzard CAS aircraft

Brilliant writer and artist, Robert Johnson of Chandelle magazine documents how Cessna-type aircraft were used successfully as armed attack aircraft as well as the twin-engined Dornier Do27--which is very much like an UV-18 Twin Otter!:

COIN: The Portuguese in Africa, 1959-1975, Part II in a series

"In desperation, the Portuguese turned to the only available STOL asw genius 110 that offered asw genius 110 improvement in payload over the Austers, the Dornier Do-27.

The Dornier was essentially a light aircraft. It was powered by a 270-hp Lycoming. Yet, with 200 asw genius 110 less than the Broussard, it lifted an equivalent payload, 6-8 passengers and crew.

It was also rugged, versatile, and, with the simple, horizontally opposed Lycoming asw genius 110, economical to operate. After extensive tests, Portugal ordered 16 Do-27Ks, essentially the Luftwaffe's Do27A-4 with a strengthened, wide-track undercarriage, extra fuel tanks, and underwing hard points. These hard points allowed the aircraft to serve in a FAC (Forward Air Control) role with smoke-marker rockets asw genius 110 in the light close-support role with an 18-round pod of 37-mm MATRA SNEB rockets under each wing (interestingly, this rocket was also adapted for use in the standard, infantry bazooka of the Portuguese army).

All aircraft were painted in standard Portuguese colors: bare-metal wings and grey fuselage with a white top and a blue cheat line. A second asw genius 110 of 24 Do-27K-2s was received in 1962, all in overall aluminum finish. Finally, from 1963 on, as the German army and air force began to retire the Do-27, the German government passed many of the asw genius 110 on to Portugal. In all, asw genius 110 Do-27A-1, A-3s, Asw genius 110, and B-1s were taken on charge.

All retained their German finish, generally NATO-standard Green and grey camouflage, sometimes with bright, day-glo orange cowls or wing tips.

The Dorniers proved asw genius 110 and highly successful in use, though losses were comparatively heavy. Though vulnerable to ground fire, the rocket-armed Do-27Ks were useful close-support aircraft. But they were in increasingly short supply (11 were lost in action).

Several attempts were thus made to arm the German-surplus aircraft, all of which lacked the wing hardpoints that made rocket armament possible.

A number of Do-27A-1 and A-4 aircraft were fitted with fuselage racks for two 50-kg bombs and used in action, but the modification does not appear to have been successful enough for general adoption. A K-1 was given an experimental door mounting for a 1200 round-per-minute MG42 machine gun and successfully tested using a circling, gunship-style flight path. Though this would have been asw genius 110 easiest way of arming the Do-27As, it was not accepted for service use. In any case, the Do-27s days as a viable combat aircraft were clearly numbered by the late '60s.

Light aircraft could not survive in the face of the increasingly common 12.7-mm machine gun fire."

In fact, he describes how a Cessna Super SkyMaster type aircraft like Phil West's "Buzzard" was already used in combat as the Rhodesian "Lynx":

A non-descript airplane for non-descript wars: the Reims Aviation FTB-337 Milirole:

"As a twin-engined aircraft with well-separated engines, 450 hp, and no awkward engine-out asymmetry to deal with, the FTB-337 was asw genius 110 to facing small-arms fire, particularly if the O-2's asw genius 110 fuel tanks and armored seats were included.

Its designed load of six passengers and luggage could easily be traded for an equivalent weight of weapons, once reinforced strong points were built in to the wing and suitable racks supplied.

When it reached Rhodesia, the Milirole became the Lynx. Rhodesian workshops armed the aircraft with underwing bomb racks and .303-in Browning machine guns salved from the aircraft the Lynx was to replace, the now elderly Hunting Provost.

The guns were fitted into crudely streamlined pods and mounted on pylons asw genius 110 the cabin, where, in First World-War fashion, they could fire over the propeller. Ammunition was fed to the guns from boxes in the cabin. However, by the time the Lynxes were ready, the counterinsurgency/ground-attack mission could no longer be adequately filled asw genius 110 a light aircraft of the armed Provost/Milirole type. African resistance was more sophisticated than it had been: guerilla formations were larger, their antiaircraft defenses were heavier and better organized, and Rhodesian ground forces needed much heavier air support than the Lynx could manage.

As a result, Lynxes confined themselves largely to forward air control, marking targets for Hunters asw genius 110 Canberras, and to flare dropping during night attacks on isolated farms and outposts. Typical weapons loads thus included pods of 37-mm Asw genius 110 rockets and small flares carried on locally developed multiple-ejector racks. A sizable number of the aircraft survived to see service in the African-controlled Zimbabwean air force."

See also Rhodesian Fire Forces under World Airborne Operations for operations where the Lynx was used.

In the Airpower Journal - Spring 1991 edition, "The Role of TACTICAL AIR POWER IN LOW-INTENSITY CONFLICT", Captain Vance C. Bateman, USAF outlines how affordable fixed-wing CAS aircraft could and should be a part of asw genius 110 USAF force structure and proposes several aircraft to include the Piper PA-48 Enforcer (photos here), the Sadler Piranha, A-22 and an armed crop duster.

The Piranha uses a 30mm linked-feed version of the M230 autocannon used on the AH-64A Apache, AH-64 DAP and AH-6 Little Bird helicopters. I like how the Piranha can be TOWED by ground vehicle trucks until its time to be flown.

Another good article, "Battlefield Air Support: A Retrospective Assessment" in the 1990 Airpower Journal by Dr. Richard P. Hallion makes a compelling case for a continuous overhead presence of strike aircraft over ground forces except he is full of asw genius 110 correct fighter-bomber jock USAF balogney on point #8 when he says current fuel-hungry, unarmored flying-too-fast-to-see-targets fighter-bombers are better than specially-designed, slower moving, armored attack aircraft for this purpose.

Got Close Air Support? The AX Debacle begats the A-10 but still no observation/attack aircraft in the end

The USAF at Vietnam's end realized it didn't have a heavily armored survivable P-47 style attack plane to asw genius 110 down the Soviet tank hordes in a WWIII Europe scenario.

Turboprop P-51 Mustangs like the Piper PA-48 Enforcer were rejected out of hand by the snobby USAF that only wanted jets. Another prop plane that was rejected was a version of the proven Mohawk depicted above that looked very much like an Argentine Pucara. Again, had the marines been less snobby and co-operated with the Army we wouldn't be in the mess we are in today.


The Northrop A-9 lost to the Fairchild A-10 to become the Warthog but the USAF refused to field two-seat versions for a back-seat enlisted observer to be an Airborne Forward Air Controller (AFAC) so there today is still no aeroscouting taking place to find the enemy and overworked A-10 pilots flying low to the ground get target fixation and dive into the ground, killing themselves and destroying the aircraft the USAF fighter-jock egomaniacs hate.

Over the years many aerospace engineers and military reformers have proposed low-cost P-47/Stuka/Sturmovik type "clean sheet" designs to regain lost maneuver air support capabilities but asw genius 110 far the fighter pilot and rotor head ego clubs of the U.S.

military have not wanted them. Hence the rise of unmanned air vehicles to work around these narcissists but alas they do not work, and will asw genius 110 work as well as a pilot and observer on the scene to investigate where enemies are hiding using C3D2.

ATLAS: (Anti Tank Light Attack System) Design

Low IR and Visual Signatures, Gun: 25mm GAU-12/U Gatling, Redundant Controls, Tough, Prototype Flow in 1989; Privately Financed

GE Unducted Fan Engine and GAU-13 (4 barrel 30mm or 25mm) Gun Rate of Turn>25 deg/sec; Low SFC (long loiter), Low IR Signature, Low Vulnerability

Burt Rutan Created the ARES "Mudfighter" turbofan MAS aircraft: then no one in asw genius 110 U.S.

military bought it (yet) asw genius 110 src="">

Superb artwork of ARES mudfighters in-the-attack by Army NCO John Richards!


If that were not enough innovation!

Rutan also created a prop-driven, MANNED COIN/CAS aircraft--a REAL "Predator"

BAE's "Battle Field Air Interdiction" (BAI) Fighter


Aeromacchi mini-A10 COIN

Aermacchi received in 1972 a request by a foreign country (South Africa, but Portugal was interested too, and probably other non-European customers already operating the MB-326 in CAS role).

There were three versions, one single-engine and two with a pair of turbofans. For all, the intended engine was the Rolls Royce/SNECMA M45H (more info here = Nothing came (probably development cost were too high for the plausible production run). Don't know weapons, but I assume the gns were a pair of 30 mm DEFAs.

Single-engine Version

Turbofan Version

Last, but certainly not least.the Argentines examined several CAS/COIN aircraft designs before procuring the legendary IA58 Pucara:

LARA 2: THE ULTIMATE KILLER BEE: Joint Maneuver Air Support Fighter from a clean sheet of paper that is MURPHY aka "Gremlin" and BATTLE resistant



From the Designer, Mike Sparks:

I was inspired by the SkyRaider for the LARA2 concept above.

Everyone knows how it was a great, asw genius 110 STOL attack plane. A few people realize it would have been faster and safer with no torque if it had contra-rotating props. However, very few people realize that its INSIDES were large enough to carry 14 men. What I want LARA2 to do is asw genius 110 able to carry cargo and a recon team and airdrop them WITHOUT the frontal drag penalty of LARA 1-style twin booms.

An USAF FAC pilot writes about another problem: the lack of lift over the wing when an engine conked out on the OV-10:

"The OV-10 for the AF got contra rotating props supposedly for asw genius 110 torque issue.

The marines thought that bunk and didn't care asw genius 110 they had which turning engine asw genius 110 which side. In fact they didn't care if they had two rights or two lefts on the plane at the same time. Never heard of one crashing because of that. It was much more sensitive to airspeed and having the prop blowing air over the asw genius 110. An engine out radically altered the stall characteristics of that wing.

I know all about that because once while checking out at Hurlburt I pushed it past the limit. I was doing a practice engine out approach - left engine pulled back asw genius 110 zero thrust, left turn to a 500' AGL final from 800' AGL downwind and a strong crosswind from the left.

I had lots of airspeed but as I pulled it around I felt through the stick the beginnings of a "nibble" and knew that I was going around because I couldn't make the turn to get aligned with the runway. Since I had lots of airspeed a single engine go around was no problem except the plane had a different idea. As I was relaxing the back pressure on the stick the wing quit flying and the plane snapped upside down.

As the saying in the bar goes - 'There I was Upside Down in the traffic pattern.' I knew where we were and that a pull through was totally out of the question so I have the presence of mind to end the practice, roll it around using ailerons and rudders and push up the power on the left engine. We broke out of the pattern on a 45 degree angle and came around for another try. Made asw genius 110 a full stop so we could change our underwear and get a beer.

The lesson - an OV-10 flies well but stalls with little to no warning. When in trouble with one out lots of air asw genius 110 and gentle handling are required. That characteristic killed most of the people who died in the plane."

It asw genius 110 has a tail drogue chute to pull out of spins and to slow down the plane on landing if a short run is required or if the brakes fail.

I asw genius 110 don't want two engines on each wing creating the fatal asymmetric thrust situations that has killed so many military and civilian pilots.

We need a second engine in the tail as back-up and as power boost for 500 mph speeds in combat. I'm not content with in-line twin engine thrust to eliminate take-off and landing crashes, though this advantage will be huge and solve 80% of the problem. If for WHATEVER the reason, the plane does not have power or has high explosive ordnance stuck under its wings and can't belly land, then the crew can deploy a ballistic recovery parachute and float to the asw genius 110 in the aircraft or eject individually and have asw genius 110 LARA2 float to the ground.

If the plane can belly in or even with a co-pilot observer to remind the pilot, he somehow forgets to lower the gear, it can on land on all 3 of its wheels that protrude a bit to enable an undamaged rolling landing. If the LARA2 lacks altitude or the water is dangerously cold, it has a ditching flap on the front to belly asw genius 110 on the open ocean without nosing over. LARA2 should be able to float indefinitely if undamaged and if damaged float long enough for everyone inside to get out into full-sized life rafts asw genius 110 full water survival gear.

My goal for the LARA2 is to be the most murphy and combat resistant, durable, safe and tough aircraft, ever, PERIOD.


Army: ground-mobile ESTOL observation/attack MAS plane embedded in every brigade during offensive movements; self-contained in fortified against HE attacks and C3D2 camouflaged BATTLEBOXes at FOBs in the defense

Navy: small surface ship asw genius 110 observation/ASW/AAW/LA-MAS seaplane, or small aircraft carrier CTOL/STOBAR observation/ASW/AAW/LA-MAS or modern LTA blimp/dirigible

Asw genius 110 Force: ability to hook and unhook in flight from asw genius 110 special cargo/tanker 747 acting as an "airborne aircraft carrier" or modern LTA blimp/dirigible



Entire aircraft clear to blend in with sky; skin would be see-through

See-Through Aircraft

Opaque = Bad

See-Through = Good

Here's a VMO-6 Bell 47 in OD Green in white snow-covered Korea, first one has been shot down, the second one is at its base

How the VMO-6 Bell 47 would have looked if painted white to blend in with snow background

LARA 2 would be covered like Piasecki "banana" HRP helicopter above but covering would be see-through; what cannot be see-through like the frame, pilots (flight suits/helmets) and engines etc.

would be in LIGHT GRAY to minimize visual appearance as much as possible, like the Bell 47 framework above.



Quiet: cannot be detected by enemy on ground as low as 100 feet AGL

Lockheed Q-Star in Vietnam

5-bladed prop on WW2 Grasshopper observation plane: 66 decibels

What is a decibel?

Decibel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

dB (SPL) Source (with distance)

194 Theoretical limit for a sound wave at 1 atmosphere asw genius 110 pressure; pressure waves with a greater intensity behave as shock waves.

180 Krakatoa volcano explosion at 1 mile in air [1]

160 M1 Garand (7.62mm x asw genius 110 cartridge) being fired at 1 meter (3 ft)

150 Jet engine at 30 m (100 ft)


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